e-Bulletin on Constitutional Case-Law
Special collection of cases related to CODVID-19

As a result of the Covid-19 pandemic, governments across the world have taken exceptional measures to slow the spread or “flatten the curve” of this virus. These exceptional measures are needed but must have clear limits. The Venice Commission has analysed limits to such measures on numerous occasions and has consistently emphasised that State security and public safety can only be effectively guaranteed in a democracy that fully respects the rule of law.

In April 2020, the Venice Commission’s Scientific Council prepared a compilation of the Commission’s general reports and country-specific opinions on constitutional provisions and legislation on emergency situations. In addition, the Secretariat of the Venice Commission has gathered information on this issue from contributions made by its members and completed it with information gathered from other sources, including academic articles, legal blogs, official information from websites and so on.

In order to bring all this information together, the Venice Commission’s Secretariat has created an Observatory on Emergency Regimes, which can be found here:

https://www.venice.coe.int/WebForms/pages/?p=02_EmergencyPowersObservatory

The Observatory on Emergency Regimes also includes a list of the relevant case-law on this issue taken from the Venice Commission’s CODICES database. You will find the list of these cases below.

This list will be updated on a regular basis. To this end, liaison officers are invited to consult this list and inform the Secretariat if they wish to add other cases to it or if they find errors or inaccuracies.

A. List of précis by country

B. Systematic Thesaurus

C. Alphabetical Index

A. List of précis by country
Benin Argentina Austria Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brazil Chile Costa Rica Croatia
Czech Republic France Germany Hungary
Kosovo Moldova, Republic of Montenegro Norway
Organisation of American States Russia Serbia Slovakia
Slovenia Ukraine United Kingdom

BENIN

ARGENTINA

ARG-2020-1-001 a) Argentina / b) Supreme Court / c) / d) 24.04.2020 / e) CSJ 353/2020/CS1 / f) Fernández de Kirchner, Cristina en carácter de Presidenta del Honorable Senado de la Nación s/ acción declarativa de certeza /
The Judiciary can only review the legislative procedure, its compliance with the requirements for the creation of laws and its accordance with the legal order once the law has been enacted, but not before. Besides, it has not been granted the authority to analyse the constitutionality of regulations, to deliver abstract interpretations, or to issue merely theoretical or consultative rulings. The... Read more
1.2.1.1 Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a public body - Head of State.
1.3.5.9 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Parliamentary rules.
1.5.3 Constitutional Justice - Decisions - Form.
4.5.2 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers.
4.5.2.1 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers - Competences with respect to international agreements.
4.5.2.2 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers - Powers of enquiry.
4.5.2.3 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers - Delegation to another legislative body.
4.5.6 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Law-making procedure.
COVID-19 / Parliament, virtual sessions.

AUSTRIA

AUT-2020-2-002 a) Austria / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 14.07.2020 / e) V 363/2020 / f) /
COVID-19 regulation of 15 March 2020, Federal Law Gazette II no. 98/2020 (as amended), according to which the entry into public places was generally forbidden for the purpose of preventing the spread of COVID-19, was unlawful because it lacked a clear legal authorisation expressly providing for such a far-reaching interference with the right to free movement. The legal interest of an applicant... Read more
1.4.3 Constitutional Justice - Procedure - Time-limits for instituting proceedings.
1.4.6.1 Constitutional Justice - Procedure - Grounds - Time-limits.
1.4.9.2 Constitutional Justice - Procedure - Parties - Interest.
3.12 General Principles - Clarity and precision of legal provisions.
3.13 General Principles - Legality.
4.6.3.2 Institutions - Executive bodies - Application of laws - Delegated rule-making powers.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.6 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of movement.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19, epidemic, pandemic. / Public place, access, restriction, entry ban, exception, professional duties, necessary basic needs / Public place, outdoors, indoors / Household, same, different / Employment, home office / University, professional duties, access, library / Freedom of movement, temporary restriction, access, second residence / Expired legislation, temporal applicability, short, challenge, legal interest.

AUT-2020-2-003 a) Austria / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 14.07.2020 / e) G 202/2020 / f) /
The property restrictions as provided in § 1 of the COVID-19 regulation of 15 March 2020, Federal Law Gazette II no. 96/2020, including an entry ban on customer areas of business premises and leading to a temporary closure of shops and businesses are necessary in order to avoid the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. The right to property under Article 5 of the Basic Law on the General Rights of... Read more
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
3.19 General Principles - Margin of appreciation.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.2 Fundamental Rights - Equality.
5.3.39.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to property - Other limitations.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19, epidemic, pandemic / Right to property, compensation for loss of earnings, economic support measures / Entry ban, ban on operation.

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

BIH-2020-1-001 a) Bosnia and Herzegovina / b) Constitutional Court / c) Chamber / d) 22.02.2020 / e) AP 1217/20 / f) /
The Constitutional Court must consider the balance between the needs and protection of society as a whole and the rights of individuals. To be proportional, measures that significantly interfere with the human rights guaranteed under the Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights must have a basis, be strictly limited in time, include an obligation to regularly review the measures... Read more
2.1.1.4.4 Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - European Convention on Human Rights of 1950.
3.9 General Principles - Rule of law.
3.12 General Principles - Clarity and precision of legal provisions.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
3.22 General Principles - Prohibition of arbitrariness.
4.18 Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.
5.1.4.2 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions - General/special clause of limitation.
5.1.4.3 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions - Subsequent review of limitation.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.6 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of movement.
5.3.44 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights of the child.
Circumstance, exceptional / COVID-19 / Person, elderly / Children, special needs, mental and physical condition / Protection of the existent health system.

BIH-2021-1-002 a) Bosnia and Herzegovina / b) Constitutional Court / c) Grand Chamber / d) 22.12.2020 / e) AP 3683/20 / f) /
The orders issued by narrow segments of the executive authority on mandatory wearing of protective face masks and on the restriction of movement constituted a violation of the right to private life and freedom of movement.
Circumstance, exceptional / COVID-19, pandemic / Protection of the existent health system.

BRAZIL

BRA-2020-1-005 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 17.04.2020 / e) Referral of the provisional remedy in the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 6363 (ADI 6363 Ref-MC) / f) Labour measures to preserve jobs and income in the face of public calamity /
A rule by the executive branch authorising the reduction of working hours and salary or the temporary suspension of employment contracts by individual agreement due to the new coronavirus pandemic, regardless of union consent, is constitutional.
1.2.2.5 Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a private body or individual - Trade unions.
1.5.4.7 Constitutional Justice - Decisions - Types - Interim measures.
4.18 Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.
5.2.1.2 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Scope of application - Employment.
5.4.3 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to work.
5.4.11 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Freedom of trade unions.
5.4.17 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to just and decent working conditions.
Economic and financial crisis, policy, measure / Economy, state intervention / Emergency legislation, approval / Labour rights, restrictions, requirements / Salary, reduction, compensation.

BRA-2020-1-006 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 29.04.2020 / e) Referral of the provisional remedy in the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 6342 (ADI 6342 Ref-MC) / f) Competences of the federal entities to fight coronavirus /
A provisional presidential decree that relaxes labour rights during the public health emergency caused by the new corona virus is constitutional.
3.25 General Principles - Market economy.
5.4.3 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to work.
5.4.17 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to just and decent working conditions.
Enterprise, small and medium-sized / Employment, preservation, pandemic.

BRA-2020-1-007 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 30.04.2020 / e) Referral of the provisional remedy in the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 6351 (ADI 6351 Ref-MC) / f) Restrictive measures imposed on access to information law during the new coronavirus pandemic /
Changes to the law governing requests for access to information during the pandemic were in line with the Constitution.
3.3 General Principles - Democracy.
5.3.24 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to information.
5.3.25 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to administrative transparency.
Information, access, limit / Information, access, denial / Information, access, reasonable / Information, disclosure / Information, duty to provide / Information, reasonable access.

BRA-2020-2-009 a) Brazil / b) Supreme Court / c) Single-judge decision / d) 27.03.2020 / e) Provisional Remedy in the Claim of Noncompliance with a Fundamental Precept 663 (ADPF 663-MC) / f) Suspension of the term of the Provisional Presidential Decree during the COVID-19 pandemic /
1.1.4.2 Constitutional Justice - Constitutional jurisdiction - Relations with other institutions - Legislative bodies.
1.5.4.7 Constitutional Justice - Decisions - Types - Interim measures.
Administration, efficiency / COVID-19 / Provisional measure / Provisional measure, nature / Parliament, ability to function, protection / Parliament, act / Parliament, action, internal / Parliament, commission, functioning / Parliament, committee, competences / Parliament, power, restriction / Parliament, Senate, regulation / Parliamentary democracy, principle / Parliamentary rule, legal force.

BRA-2020-2-010 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Single-judge decision / d) 03.04.2020 / e) Provisional Remedy in the Claim of Noncompliance with a Fundamental Precept 662 (ADPF 662-MC) / f) Increase of families that receive social assistance benefits without a corresponding source to fund it /
A law that increases the number of people that receive social assistance benefits has a budgetary and financial impact. The national emergency period concerning the novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is no sufficient reason for the law not to indicate the source of full funding of the increased number of beneficiaries, especially since it proposes a permanent increase which will have to be paid... Read more
4.4.3.4 Institutions - Head of State - Powers - Promulgation of laws.
4.6.10.2 Institutions - Executive bodies - Liability - Political responsibility.
4.7.16.1 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Liability - Liability of the State.
4.10.2 Institutions - Public finances - Budget.
5.1.1.4.2 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Natural persons - Incapacitated.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
Benefit, governmental / Budgetary balance, principle / Budget, control, state / COVID-19 / Disability, persons, rights / Disabled person, benefit, right / Disabled person, social assistance / Disabled person, social assistance, entitlement / Disabled person, social assistance, entitlement, conditions / Disabled person, welfare benefit, urgent need / Disease, infectious / Elderly person / Health, effective protection / Health, public health, public interest / Health protection, system / Health situation, worsening / Responsibility, authority / Responsibility, constitutional / Social assistance, entitlement, condition / Social assistance, payment, source / Social benefits and assistance, amount / Social welfare / Financial control / Financial mean, principle.

BRA-2020-2-011 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 17.04.2020 / e) Referendum on the provisional remedy in the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 6387 (ADI 6387 Ref-MC) / f) /
The sharing of data by telecommunication companies with the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics Foundation, with the aim of supporting the production of official statistics during the public health emergency period due to coronavirus (COVID-19) violates the right to private life and to the protection of personal data.
1.5.4.7 Constitutional Justice - Decisions - Types - Interim measures.
5.3.32.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life - Protection of personal data.
5.3.36.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Inviolability of communications - Telephonic communications.
COVID-19 / Data, access, public interest / Data, personal, protection / Data, use, purpose limitation, principle / Data protection, unnecessary personal data, information concerning health Disease, infectious / Information, access, limit / Information, access, denial / Information, access, reasonable / Information, disclosure / Information, duty to provide / Information, obligation to provide / Information, right / Personal privacy, right / Provisional measure / Telephones, cell.

BRA-2020-2-012 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Single-judge decision / d) 22.04.2020 / e) Provisional Relief on Civil Original Action 3.385 (ACO 3385 TP) / f) The Union cannot request items bought by a regional state (ventilators) to combat COVID-19 /
According to the Constitution (Article 5.XXV), unless the state of defence or state of siege is declared and in force, the Union shall only take private properties. Thus, the federal government has no power to request ventilators bought by a state-member.
1.6.8 Constitutional Justice - Effects - Influence on everyday life.
3.6.2 General Principles - Structure of the State - Regional State.
4.8.1 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Federal entities.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19 / Disease, infectious / Dispute, competence, central government, local government / Division of powers / Executive, power, competences, scope / Fundamental right, protection / Health, protection, effective / Health, public health, public interest / Responsibility, authority / Responsibility, constitutional / State, duty, protection of life and safety.

BRA-2020-2-013 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Single-judge decision / d) 13.05.2020 / e) Claim of Noncompliance with a Fundamental Precept 568 (ADPF 568) / f) The settlement sum approved in court may be reallocated to fight the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) /
The amount Petrobras agreed to pay in penalties in the context of a non-prosecution agreement is extra-budget and the Court may reallocate it to the states to fund actions aimed at combating the COVID-19 virus. Such authorisation is justified by the pressing need that threatens the life and physical integrity of the population and complies with the public interest, as it is indispensable to... Read more
3.6.2 General Principles - Structure of the State - Regional State.
4.8.1 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Federal entities.
4.8.7.2 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Budgetary and financial aspects - Arrangements for distributing the financial resources of the State.
4.18 Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19 / International agreements, priority / International agreement, validity, evaluation / Agreement, international, applicability / Agreement, international, binding force / Administration, efficiency / Administration, flexibility / Administration, morality, principle / Evaluation, legally significant facts / Health care, public service / Health care, right / Deposit, amount, socially oriented / Deviation of power / Disease, infectious / Education, State, duty / Emergency, assistance / Emergency, ongoing / Forest, protection / Deposit Insurance Fund / Jurisdiction, exclusive competence / Capital washing / Education program, government, financial assistance / Project, state importance / Health protection, system / Appeal, financial, adequate / Judicial review, administrative decision / Health, protection, program, Government / Health, public health, public interest / Health system, direct assistance / Health situation, worsening.

BRA-2020-2-014 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Single-judge decision / d) 13.05.2020 / e) Claim of Noncompliance with a Fundamental Precept 672 (ADPF 672) / f) The states, the Federal District and the municipalities are competent to adopt measures to combat the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) /
The states and the Federal District enjoy concurrent power, whereas municipalities enjoy supplementary power within their respective territories to adopt restrictive measures during the pandemic. Therefore, complying with federalism and its constitutional rules on distribution of powers implies respecting the decisions of governors and mayors regarding social distancing and quarantine, suspension... Read more
1.3.4.3 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Types of litigation - Distribution of powers between central government and federal or regional entities.
3.6.2 General Principles - Structure of the State - Regional State.
4.8.1 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Federal entities.
4.18 Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
Administration, efficiency / COVID-19 / Disease, infectious / Emergency, assistance / Emergency, ongoing / Health care, public office / Health care, right / Health protection, system / Health, protection, programme, governmental / Health, public health, public interest / Health situation, worsening / Health system, direct assistance / Sovereignty, equal, between federal states / State authorities, conflict / State authorities, distribution of power / State, duty to protect fundamental rights and freedoms / State, duty to protect life.

BRA-2020-2-015 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 13.05.2020 / e) Referendum of the provisional remedy in the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 6357 (ADI 6357 Ref-MC) / f) Remove requirements from laws to expand prevention programs against COVID-19 to protect the most vulnerable population /
The requests to disregard the requirements of the Act on Fiscal Responsibility and of the Budget Directives Law, because of the need to increase unforeseen and necessary expenditure to combat COVID-19, became moot by the enactment of a new Constitutional Amendment that deals with the same subject.
4.6.3 Institutions - Executive bodies - Application of laws.
4.8.7 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Budgetary and financial aspects.
4.10.2 Institutions - Public finances - Budget.
4.10.7 Institutions - Public finances - Taxation.
COVID-19 / Budget Act / Budget, control, state / Budget Law / Budget, law, amendment / Budget, supplementary / Economic and financial crisis / Economic and financial situation, extremely difficult / Economic policy, measure / Economic situation, adjustment / Economy, transition period / Emergency measure / Emergency, state, rule of law / Executive power, accountability / Executive power, Federal President, integrative task of the office / Expenditure, exceptional / Expenditure, not provided for by law / Funds, sickness / Government act, legitimate purpose / Government, authorisation / Government, emergency decree, exceptional circumstances, interpretation / Government, emergency order / Government purpose, legitimate / State, responsibility / State, social guarantee.

BRA-2020-2-016 a) Brazil / b) Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 14.05.2020 / e) Referendum of the provisional remedy in the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 6359 (ADI 6359 Ref-MC) / f) Suspension for 30 (thirty) days of the deadline for party affiliation, electoral domicile and disengagement from public service /
The established deadlines for the municipal elections that will take place in October this year shall remain in force, despite the state of pandemic caused by COVID-19; the opposite would breach the democratic principle and popular sovereignty.
1.3.4.6 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Types of litigation - Litigation in respect of referendums and other instruments of direct democracy .
4.9.7.2 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Preliminary procedures - Registration of parties and candidates.
COVID-19 / Dismissal, obligatory period / Disease, infectious / Election to Parliament, law / Election, association / Election, candidacy, presentation by political party, requirement / Election, candidate list, holder, status / Election, candidate, procedure registration / Election, Electoral Code, Constitution / Election, electoral list, quota, sex / Election, municipality / Election, party, candidates, list, gender, balance / Election, residency period, requirement / Parliament, member, incompatibility, other activity / Public office, plurality, incompatibility.

BRA-2020-2-017 a) Brazil / b) Supreme Court / c) Single-judge decision / d) 16.05.2020 / e) / f) Expulsion of Venezuelan diplomats from the national territory /
An act issued by the president of the Republic that disaccredits Venezuelan diplomats is valid, since it falls within his private and non-delegable competence. However, the 48-hour deadline given to the diplomats to leave the national territory is not reasonable considering the current situation of the COVID-19 pandemic as it puts at risk their life, in addition to their physical and... Read more
2.1.1.4.19 Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - International conventions regulating diplomatic and consular relations.
4.4.3.5 Institutions - Head of State - Powers - International relations.
4.16 Institutions - International relations.
Ambassador / Diplomat / Diplomat, Accreditation / Diplomatic Relations, Establishment / Expulsion / President, Powers / President, Power, Delegation / President, Powers, Delegation / President, Individual Law, Control / Judicial Review of other State Powers / COVID-19 / COVID-19, pandemic / COVID-19, Public health / Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, effectiveness.

BRA-2020-2-018 a) Brazil / b) Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 21.05.2020 / e) Provisional remedy on the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 6421 (ADI 6421-MC) / f) Public agents´s liability for action and omission in acts related to the COVID-19 pandemic /
Authorities must observe technical and scientific criteria of medical and sanitary entities when carrying out their actions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Their actions are subject to the principle of prevention and of precaution. This means that if there is any doubt as to the effects of any measure, authorities should not apply it; self-restraint must guide the Administration.
4.6.10.1.2 Institutions - Executive bodies - Liability - Legal liability - Civil liability.
4.6.10.1.3 Institutions - Executive bodies - Liability - Legal liability - Criminal liability.
COVID-19 / Civil servant, authority, misuse / Civil servant, disciplinary procedure / Civil servant, duties under terms of service / Civil servant, measure, disciplinary / Civil servant, negligence, damage caused, personal liability / Civil servant, rights and obligations / Legal act, failure to observe, liability, administrative, criminal / Liability for negligence / Public servant, integrity / Liability, civil servant / Liability, state, civil / Liability, state, pecuniary / Liability, State, qualified fault / Provisional measure.

BRA-2020-2-019 a) Brazil / b) Supreme Court / c) Single-judge decision / d) 09.06.2020 / e) Provisional Remedy in the Claim of Noncompliance with a Fundamental Precept 690 (ADPF 690-MC) / f) Transparency and publicity are needed regarding epidemiological data on the COVID-19 pandemic /
The severity of the emergency caused by the COVID-19 pandemic requires effective public health protection from Brazilian authorities. Disastrous consequences for the population may arise if there is no transparency and disclosure in the collection, analysis, storage and dissemination of epidemiological data, which must provide planning guidance to public authorities on policy-making, in addition... Read more
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
5.3.24 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to information.
5.3.25 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to administrative transparency.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
Administration, efficiency / COVID-19 / Data, access, public interest / Data, correction, right / Disease, infectious / Health, public health, public interest / Health care, public office / Health care, right / Health protection, system / Health situation, worsening / Health system, direct assistance / Information, access, denial / Information, access, reasonable / Information, accuracy / Information, disclosure / Information, disclosure by the federal government / Information, obligation to provide / Information, right / Responsibility, authority / Responsibility, constitutional / Transparency, administrative / Transparency, principle / Transparency, public administration.

BRA-2020-3-020 a) Brazil / b) Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 06.05.2020 / e) Referendum of the Provisional Remedy on the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality ADI 6343 (ADI 6343/MC-Ref) / f) States and municipalities do not need Union authorisation to adopt measures to restrict locomotion in their territories during a pandemic /
Within the scope of their competencies and in their respective territories, States and Municipalities can adopt measures to restrict intercity and local locomotion during a state of emergency resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. In this case, there is no need for authorisation from the Ministry of Health to decree isolation, quarantine and other measures. The Union too is competent to enact the... Read more
1.5.4.7 Constitutional Justice - Decisions - Types - Interim measures.
1.6.8 Constitutional Justice - Effects - Influence on everyday life.
3.6.2 General Principles - Structure of the State - Regional State.
4.8.1 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Federal entities.
4.8.3 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Municipalities.
4.8.4.1 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Basic principles - Autonomy.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID 19 / Decentralisation of powers, principle / Decentralisation, limits / Fundamental right, protection / Dispute, competence, central government, local government / Division of powers / Disease, infectious / State, duty, protection of life and safety / Executive, power, competences, scope / Freedom of movement of services / Freedom to travel / Freedom, movement / Freedom, restriction / Provisional Measure / Municipality, jurisdiction / Municipality, territory / Responsibility, authority / Responsibility, constitutional / Health, protection, effective / Health, public health, public interest / Territory, authority / Territory, entry, exit / Territory, self-government / Road traffic, laws and regulations / Road traffic, offense.

BRA-2020-3-022 a) Brazil / b) Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 05.08.2020 / e) Referendum on the Provisional Remedy on Original Civil Action 3.359 (ACO 3359 MC-Ref) / f) Cash transfer cutbacks in the Bolsa Família Program shall be suspended while the state of public calamity resulting from the coronavirus pandemic remains /
The petitioners proved that, despite the high numbers of people enrolled in the Bolsa Família Program and who are residents of the Northeast Region, few were attended by that Program, compared to other states in the country. The federal government cannot treat its citizens in a discriminatory manner, due to the place of residence. To better eradicate poverty and promote equality among the... Read more
1.6.8 Constitutional Justice - Effects - Influence on everyday life.
3.6.2 General Principles - Structure of the State - Regional State.
3.21 General Principles - Equality.
4.8.1 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Federal entities.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
5.3.45 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Protection of minorities and persons belonging to minorities.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19 / Disease, infectious / Dispute, competence, central government, local government / Equality before the law / Equality, equality of citizens before the law, general principle / Equality, inequality, human rights of others, impact / Equality, prohibition of discrimination / Equality of rights and obligations / Equality, violation / Executive, power, competences, scope / Fundamental right, protection / Health, effective protection / Health, public health, public interest / Responsibility, authority / Responsibility, constitutional / Social assistance, exclusion / Social assistance, entitlement, condition / Social assistance, reduction / Social assistance, right, condition / Social benefits and assistance, amount / Social protection, reduction / Social protection, right / Social protection, state / Social protection, systems / State, duty, protection of life and safety / State, social guarantee.

BRA-2020-3-023 a) Brazil / b) Supreme Court / c) Single-judge decision / d) 05.08.2020 / e) Referendum on a Provisional Remedy on a Claim of Non-compliance with a Fundamental Precept 709 (ADPF 709/MC-Ref) / f) Protection of indigenous people against COVID-19 /
The Constitution grants professional associations the right to file claims directly before the Supreme Federal Court. The definition of professional associations shall be understood as a group of people who perform the same economic and professional activity, or also, who are members of associations that advocate for the interests of vulnerable and/or minority groups. The latter must be included... Read more
5.3.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to dignity.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
COVID-19 / Indigenous people, rights / Indigenous peoples, protection, COVID-19 / Indigenous rights.

BRA-2020-3-026 a) Brazil / b) Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 02.09.2020 / e) Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 6362 (ADI 6362) / f) The requests for goods and services carried out by the states, municipalities and the Federal District to combat the new coronavirus are not subject to prior authorisation from the Ministry of Health /
The states, the municipalities, and the Federal District may take goods and services to combat the coronavirus pandemic. Such requisition does not rely on the Ministry of Health´s prior authorisation, although the unit of the Federation must duly reason the act and ground it on scientific evidence.
1.6.8 Constitutional Justice - Effects - Influence on everyday life.
3.6.2 General Principles - Structure of the State - Regional State.
4.8.1 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Federal entities.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19 / Fundamental right, equivalent protection / Dispute, competence, central government, local government / Division of powers / Disease, infectious / State, duty to protection fundamental rights and freedoms / Executive, power, competences, scope / Responsibility, authority / Responsibility, constitutional / Health, protection, effective / Health, public health, public interest.

BRA-2020-3-027 a) Brazil / b) Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 09.10.2020 / e) Provisional Remedy on the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 6475 (ADI 6475/MC) / f) Financial obligations and legislative competence /
A state law that suspends, for 90 days, the fulfilment of financial obligations that occur due to loans taken by public employees from state and municipalities, with the intent of mitigating the effects of the new coronavirus pandemic, is unconstitutional since only the Union can pass legislation regarding civil law and credit policy.
4.8.1 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Federal entities.
4.8.4.1 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Basic principles - Autonomy.
5.4.6 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Commercial and industrial freedom.
COVID-19 / Federation, legislature, powers, exceeding / Legislative competence, limits / Legislative power, limitation / Contract, legislative intervention / Credit / Bank, loan.

BRA-2020-3-029 a) Brazil / b) Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 17.12.2020 / e) Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 6.586 (ADI 6586) and General Repercussion in Extraordinary Appeal with Interlocutory Motion 1267878 (ARE 1267879/RG) / f) The State may compulsorily order citizens to submit to vaccination against Covid-19. Philosophical, moral, religious and existential convictions do not overlap with society's rights to protect itself with the adoption of compulsory vaccination /
Based on the existing division of competences between the different levels of government existing in Brazil, states, municipalities, and the Federal District have autonomy to carry out local compulsory vaccination campaigns against Covid-19, provided for in Law 13,979/2020. The Constitution protects the right of every citizen to maintain their philosophical, religious, moral, and existential... Read more
1.3.4.3 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Types of litigation - Distribution of powers between central government and federal or regional entities.
1.3.4.4 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Types of litigation - Powers of local authorities.
1.6.8 Constitutional Justice - Effects - Influence on everyday life.
3.6.2 General Principles - Structure of the State - Regional State.
3.7 General Principles - Relations between the State and bodies of a religious or ideological nature.
4.8.1 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Federal entities.
4.8.3 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Municipalities.
4.8.4.1 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Basic principles - Autonomy.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19 / Decentralisation, limits / Decentralisation of powers, principle / Disease, infectious / Dispute, competence, central government, local government / Executive, power, competences, scope / Fundamental right, protection / Health, effective protection / Health, public health, public interest / Municipality, competence / Power, division / Religion, separation of church and state / Responsibility, authority / Responsibility, constitutional / State, duty, protection of life and safety / Vaccination, infectious disease, obligatory / Vaccination, obligatory / Vaccination policies, competence distribution, Government, Parliament and Regions.

CHILE

CHI-2020-1-003 a) Chile / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 16.04.2020 / e) 8574-20 / f) /
The Constitutional Court held that making a differentiation based on the criminal offence of a convict, for the purposes of receiving a pardon, is not unconstitutional.
5.1.1 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights.
5.1.1.4.3 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Natural persons - Detainees.
5.2 Fundamental Rights - Equality.
5.2.2.7 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Age.
5.3.5 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty.
5.3.15 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights of victims of crime.
5.3.19 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of opinion.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19, pandemic / Pardon, power to grant, acting President / Pardon, restriction.

COSTA RICA

CRC-2020-3-002 a) Costa Rica / b) Supreme Court of Justice / c) Constitutional Chamber / d) 30.10.2020 / e) 20872/2020 / f) /
The right of the defense and the right to a hearing is ordinarily arranged by having the defendant physically present. This allows an effective material defense. But in extraordinary cases such physical and direct presence may be substituted using technological means. Judicial and penitentiary authorities are bound by the rights of the incarcerated to provide them with a legal course of... Read more
5.3.13.1.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Scope - Constitutional proceedings.
5.3.13.1.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Scope - Criminal proceedings.
5.3.13.6 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Right to a hearing.
5.3.13.7 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Right to participate in the administration of justice.
5.3.13.13 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Trial/decision within reasonable time.
Right to be present at hearing / COVID-19 pandemic.

CROATIA

CRO-2020-2-002 a) Croatia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 19.05.2020 / e) U-III-1393/2020 / f) /
The measure of pre-trial detention is the most serious form of limitation of one of the fundamental human rights, the guarantee of the inviolability of personal liberty. Criminal justice authorities are under no obligation to conduct every single action unconditionally, even in urgent cases; this depends on the objective circumstances they must assess. If they establish the existence of... Read more
5.3.5.1.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Deprivation of liberty - Detention pending trial.
5.3.13 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial.
5.3.13.13 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Trial/decision within reasonable time.
5.3.13.18 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Reasoning.
COVID 19 / Detention order, extension, reason / Expediency, requirement / Hearing, postponement, infectious disease (COVID-19,) pandemic.

CRO-2020-2-004 a) Croatia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 03.07.2020 / e) U-VII-2980/2020 / f) /
From the perspective of Article 16 of the Constitution, it is not constitutionally and legally unacceptable to exclude the possibility of citizens who have been diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID 19) or any other infectious disease, and are thus in isolation, and citizens who are in self-isolation due to the suspicion that they have an infectious disease, to come in person to a polling... Read more
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
4.9.9.6 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Voting procedures - Casting of votes.
5.3.41.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights - Right to vote.
COVID 19 / Election, vote, citizen, COVID-19, diagnosis / Election, vote, outside polling station.

CRO-2020-3-007 a) Croatia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 14.09.2020 / e) U-I-1372/2020 et al. / f) /
The decision on whether certain measures to combat the COVID-19 pandemic/epidemic will be taken in application of Article 16 or Article 17 of the Constitution is in the exclusive domain of the Parliament. Article 22.a of the Civil Protection System Act (hereinafter, "CPSA") in conjunction with Articles 3.2-3 and 47 of the Act on the Protection of the Population from Infectious Diseases... Read more
1.3.2.2 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Type of review - Abstract / concrete review.
1.3.5.10 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Rules issued by the executive.
3.9 General Principles - Rule of law.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
3.18 General Principles - General interest.
4.5.2 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers.
4.6.3.2 Institutions - Executive bodies - Application of laws - Delegated rule-making powers.
5.1.4 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
5.3.6 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of movement.
5.3.13.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Effective remedy.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19, disease, infectious, epidemic, pandemic / State, positive obligation / Protection, civil, headquarters, authority, executive / Headquarters, statutory authority, measures, issue / Disease, statutory measures, constitutional grounds, judicial control, constitutional control, legitimate aim, self-isolation / Law, constitutionality, formal / Public health / State, duty, protection.

CRO-2020-3-008 a) Croatia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 14.09.2020 / e) U-I-1925/2020 / f) /
The postponing of early elections or the revocation of the decision to call early local elections until the end of special circumstances (e.g. an infectious disease epidemic/pandemic), on results in their postponement until the end of such circumstances, and postponement in itself does not limit the right to vote nor the right to local self-government.
4.9 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.41.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights - Right to vote.
5.3.41.6 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights - Frequency and regularity of elections.
Election, local, early, suspension, special circumstances, COVID-19, infectious disease, epidemic / Self-government, local, right.

CRO-2020-3-009 a) Croatia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 14.09.2020 / e) U-II-3170/2020 et al. / f) /
A decision on the mandatory use of face masks and a decision on the organisation of public transport which are proportionate to the aim to be achieved (protection of human health and life) in the context of a global pandemic outweigh the individual rights of citizens who are obliged to respect and act according to the measures taken by competent authorities to protect the life and health of the... Read more
2.1.1.4.6 Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - European Social Charter of 1961.
3.13 General Principles - Legality.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
3.18 General Principles - General interest.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to dignity.
5.3.32 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life.
COVID-19, disease, infectious, epidemic, face mask / Degrading, treatment, severity, minimum / Healthcare, human dignity, preservation, precondition / Population, interest, life, human, protection / State, duty, protection, disease.

CRO-2021-1-001 a) Croatia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 23.02.2021 / e) U-II-5709/2020 et al. / f) /
The freedom of religion as provided in Article 40 of the Constitution is not absolute. Gatherings of believers at religious ceremonies can be restricted if there is a strong public interest and if the restriction is proportionate. Measures that restrict religious gatherings do not unduly restrict the constitutional guarantee of freedom of religion and freedom of public demonstrations of religious... Read more
3.13 General Principles - Legality.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
3.18 General Principles - General interest.
4.6.2 Institutions - Executive bodies - Powers.
5.1.4 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.20 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of worship.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID 19 / Disease, infectious, measures, / , / Public health / Religion, ceremonies, limited number of attending persons / Religion, ceremonies, restriction due to infectious disease epidemic / State, duty, protection against an infectious disease.

CRO-2021-1-002 a) Croatia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 23.02.2021 / e) U-II-6087/2020 et al. / f) /
The principle of free enterprise and free markets as provided in Article 49 of the Constitution is not absolute. Measures suspending work must meet the requirements of proportionality as referred to in Article 49 of the Constitution in conjunction with Article 50.2 of the Constitution which includes exceptional restrictions to property rights for the purposes of protecting the interests and... Read more
3.13 General Principles - Legality.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
3.18 General Principles - General interest.
4.6.2 Institutions - Executive bodies - Powers.
5.1.4 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.39 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to property.
5.4.6 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Commercial and industrial freedom.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19 / Disease, infectious, measures / Protection of human health and life / Public health / Catering facilities, suspension of work / State, duty, protection against an infectious disease.

CZECH REPUBLIC

CZE-2021-1-002 a) Czech Republic / b) Constitutional Court / c) Plenum / d) 09.02.2021 / e) Pl. ÚS 106/20 / f) State of emergency declared in response to Covid-19 pandemic – restrictions on retail and services /
An emergency measure which consists in the prevention or mitigation of the spread of novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has a legitimate aim. However, the regulation of the rights and obligations of individuals and the decision-making on which group of population will retain their rights, and which will bear the burdens associated with the restriction, must not be a mere expression of political... Read more
1.4.3.3 Constitutional Justice - Procedure - Time-limits for instituting proceedings - Leave to appeal out of time.
3.9 General Principles - Rule of law.
3.22 General Principles - Prohibition of arbitrariness.
5.4.6 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Commercial and industrial freedom.
Executive regulations, statutory authority / Regulation, emergency measure / COVID 19 / Measure, arbitrary.

FRANCE

FRA-2020-2-006 a) France / b) Constitutional Council / c) / d) 11.05.2020 / e) 2020-800 DC / f) Law extending the public health state of emergency and supplementing its provisions /
In its examination of the law extending the public health state of emergency, the Constitutional Council found that the French Constitution did not rule out the possibility of the legislature making provision for such a system. However, here it had to reconcile protection of public health, as an objective of constitutional value, with respect for the rights and freedoms granted to everyone living... Read more
1.2.1.1 Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a public body - Head of State.
1.2.1.2 Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a public body - Legislative bodies.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
5.1.4 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.6 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of movement.
5.3.21 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of expression.
5.3.32.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life - Protection of personal data.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
Covid-19 / Public health emergency / Personal data, collection.

FRA-2020-2-007 a) France / b) Constitutional Council / c) / d) 17.06.2020 / e) 2020-849 QPC / f) Mr Daniel D. and Others (Changes to municipal election dates) /
The Constitutional Council held that the legislature could change the dates of municipal elections in progress provided that this change was warranted on overriding grounds of public interest and that the measures adopted did not result in any infringement of the right to vote, the principle of genuine elections or the principle of equal suffrage. In the present case it upheld the postponement of... Read more
3.18 General Principles - General interest.
4.9 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy.
4.9.13 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Judicial control.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.2.1.4 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Scope of application - Elections.
5.3.41.6 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights - Frequency and regularity of elections.
Covid-19 / Election, fairness, equal suffrage / Public health emergency.

FRA-2020-3-012 a) France / b) Constitutional Council / c) / d) 13.11.2020 / e) 2020-808 DC / f) Law authorising the extension of the health emergency and introducing various measures to manage the health crisis /
The Constitution does not preclude the possibility for the legislature to put in place rules to govern a health emergency. In this context, it is for the legislature to ensure that the objective of constitutional standing of protecting health is reconciled with the requirement to respect the rights and freedoms granted to all those who reside on French soil. The measures provided for in relation... Read more
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
4.6.2 Institutions - Executive bodies - Powers.
4.6.6 Institutions - Executive bodies - Relations with judicial bodies.
4.18 Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.
5.1.4 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.32.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life - Protection of personal data.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19, pandemic, chains of infection, identification, health data / Health emergency.

FRA-2020-3-013 a) France / b) Constitutional Council / c) / d) 19.11.2020 / e) 2020-866 QPC / f) The company Getzner France (Civil proceedings not held in person against the backdrop of a health emergency) /
Having regard to the special health context arising in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic, in enabling the courts to apply procedures that do not involve hearings for certain types of civil disputes as a result of the health crisis, Article 8 of Order No. 2020-304 of 25 March 2020, as amended by Order No. 2020-595 of 20 May 2020, does not remove legal safeguards for the constitutional requirements... Read more
2.1.1.4.4 Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - European Convention on Human Rights of 1950.
3.19 General Principles - Margin of appreciation.
4.18 Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.
5.1.4 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.13.7 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Right to participate in the administration of justice.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
Health emergency, civil procedure, hearing, absence / COVID-19, pandemic / Right to be heard, exchange of written documentation.

FRA-2021-1-001 a) France / b) Constitutional Council / c) / d) 15.01.2021 / e) 2020-872/859 QPC / f) Mr Krzystof B. (Use of videoconference without the agreement of the parties before the criminal courts within the context of a health emergency) /
Taking account of the importance of the safeguard associated with the appearance in person of the interested party before the criminal courts and given the conditions under which such telecommunications equipment is to be used, the impugned provisions impair the rights of the defence in a manner that cannot be justified by the health context resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic for the duration... Read more
5.1.1.4.3 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Natural persons - Detainees.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.5.1.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Deprivation of liberty - Detention pending trial.
5.3.13.1.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Scope - Criminal proceedings.
5.3.13.7 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Right to participate in the administration of justice.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19, epidemic, pandemic / Appearance, videoconference / Criminal court, person involved in court proceedings, appearance in person.

FRA-2021-1-002 a) France / b) Constitutional Council / c) / d) 29.01.2021 / e) 2020-878/879 QPC / f) Mr Ion Andronie R. and another (Automatic extension of pre-trial custody within the context of a health emergency) /
The provisions of an order cannot automatically extend pre-trial custody during the initial period of a health emergency unless the need to continue it is reviewed by the courts within a short space of time, as a mandatory requirement.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
5.1.1.4.3 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Natural persons - Detainees.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.5.1.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Deprivation of liberty - Detention pending trial.
5.3.13.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Access to courts.
COVID-19 / COVID-19, epidemic, pandemic / Rights of prisoners / Continuation of custody / Judicial review.

FRA-2021-1-006 a) France / b) Constitutional Council / c) / d) 01.04.2021 / e) 2021-814 DC / f) Resolution amending the regulations of the National Assembly concerning the organisation of parliamentary business during periods of crisis /
Whilst parliamentary assemblies may amend their regulations in order to ensure continuity of their business during crisis situations, this is upon condition that these adaptations are sufficiently precise in order to enable the Constitutional Council to review their constitutionality.
3.12 General Principles - Clarity and precision of legal provisions.
4.5.4.1 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Organisation - Rules of procedure.
4.18 Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.
COVID-19, epidemic, pandemic / Exceptional circumstances / Exceptions, constitutional review / Parliamentary business, continuity.

GERMANY

GER-2020-1-007 a) Germany / b) Federal Constitutional Court / c) Third Chamber of the First Panel / d) 07.04.2020 / e) 1 BvR 755/20 / f) Measures against the spread of coronavirus /
1. Lodging a constitutional complaint or an application for a preliminary injunction does not violate the principle of subsidiarity where first seeking legal protection before the ordinary courts has no prospect of success, as the courts have already refused to grant preliminary injunctions in other proceedings. 2. A valid legal provision can, in the course of preliminary injunction proceedings,... Read more
1.5.4.7 Constitutional Justice - Decisions - Types - Interim measures.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
COVID-19 / Legal provisions, suspension.

GER-2020-3-029 a) Germany / b) Federal Constitutional Court / c) Second Chamber of the Second Panel / d) 16.11.2020 / e) 2 BvQ 87/20 / f) Fitness for trial – concerns relating to the COVID-19 pandemic /
1. Where the state of health of an accused is so poor that they could lose their life or suffer serious damage to their health if criminal proceedings against them were continued, a tension arises between the state’s duty to ensure the proper functioning of the criminal justice system and the fundamental right to life and physical integrity of the accused pursuant to the first sentence of Article... Read more
1.4.4 Constitutional Justice - Procedure - Exhaustion of remedies.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
5.3.4 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to physical and psychological integrity.
COVID-19, pandemic / Criminal justice system, functioning / Trial hearing, poor health, accused.

GER-2021-1-006 a) Germany / b) Federal Constitutional Court / c) Second Chamber of the Second Panel / d) 07.04.2021 / e) 2 BvR 527/21 / f) Corona-related entry restrictions /
1. Whether the legal basis for a refusal of entry to holders of a Schengen visa satisfies constitutional requirements is for the administrative courts to clarify by way of an action for a declaratory judgment. 2. It is true that the mere possession of a uniform visa or a visa with limited territorial validity does not automatically entitle the holder to entry. However, since Article 14.2 of the... Read more
5.3.13.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Access to courts.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
COVID-19 pandemic, entry to the European Union, temporary restriction / COVID-19 pandemic, travel to the European Union, temporary restriction / Schengen Borders Code.

GER-2021-1-009 a) Germany / b) Federal Constitutional Court / c) First Panel / d) 05.05.2021 / e) 1 BvR 781, 805, 820, 1 854, 889/21 / f) Night Curfew /
1. Considering the legislator’s margin of appreciation, the challenged curfew provision (number two, first sentence of § 28b.1 of the Infection Protection Act) is neither unsuitable, unnecessary, nor inappropriate as a means for fighting the pandemic. The proportionality of the curfew provision will have to be examined in detail in the principal proceedings. 2. The disadvantages following from... Read more
1.5.4.7 Constitutional Justice - Decisions - Types - Interim measures.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
COVID-19, pandemic, measures / COVID-19, pandemic, night curfew / Legal provisions, suspension.

HUNGARY

HUN-2020-2-003 a) Hungary / b) Constitutional Court / c) Plenary / d) 08.07.2020 / e) 15/2020. (VII. 8.) AB / f) On formulating a constitutional requirement stemming from Articles IX.1 and XXVIII.4 of the Fundamental Law regarding the application of Section 337.2 of Act C of 2012 of the Criminal Code and on rejecting a constitutional complaint against Section 337.2 of Act C of 2012 of the Criminal Code /
Statements made with the intent to obstruct or prevent the effectiveness of protective measures under the special legal order will only be penalised if the perpetrator knew, or should have known, that they were false at the time he or she made them.
3.12 General Principles - Clarity and precision of legal provisions.
4.18 Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.
5.3.21 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of expression.
COVID-19, special legal order.

KOSOVO

KOS-2020-1-001 a) Kosovo / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 06.04.2020 / e) KO 54/20 / f) President - Constitutional review of Decision no. 01/15 of the Government, 23 March 2020 /
Fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be restricted through Government decisions unless a restriction of the relevant right is provided by the law of the Assembly. The Government can only enforce a law of the Assembly that restricts a fundamental right and freedom only to the specific extent authorised by the Assembly through the relevant law. Restrictions of fundamental rights and freedoms as... Read more
1.3.5.10 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Rules issued by the executive.
2.1.1.4.4 Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - European Convention on Human Rights of 1950.
2.1.3.2.1 Sources - Categories - Case-law - International case-law - European Court of Human Rights.
3.4 General Principles - Separation of powers.
3.9 General Principles - Rule of law.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
4.5.7 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Relations with the executive bodies.
4.18 Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.
5.1.4 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.6 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of movement.
5.3.28 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of assembly.
5.3.32 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
COVID-19, Public health.

KOS-2020-2-002 a) Kosovo / b) Constitutional Court / c) Assembly / d) 05.05.2020 / e) KO 61/20 / f) Constitutional review of Decision no. 214/IV/2020 of 12 April 2020 of the Ministry of Health on declaring the Municipality of Prizren "quarantine zone" and of Decisions nos. 229/IV/2020, 238/IV/2020, 239/IV/2020 of 14 April 2020 of the Ministry of Health on preventing, fighting and eliminating the infectious disease COVID-19 in the territory of the municipalities of Prizren, Dragash and Istog /
Even during a pandemic crisis, the Ministry of Health and all other public institutions must act in accordance with the law and obey the rule of law principles. Any interference on human rights and freedoms – even during a pandemic – must be in accordance with the law, pursue a legitimate aim and be necessary in a democratic society. Minor offences may only be prescribed by law. Minor offenses... Read more
1.2.1.2 Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a public body - Legislative bodies.
1.3.2.2 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Type of review - Abstract / concrete review.
1.3.4.1 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Types of litigation - Litigation in respect of fundamental rights and freedoms.
1.3.4.10 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Types of litigation - Litigation in respect of the constitutionality of enactments.
1.3.5.13 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Administrative acts.
2.1.1.1.1 Sources - Categories - Written rules - National rules - Constitution.
2.1.3.1 Sources - Categories - Case-law - Domestic case-law.
2.2.2.1 Sources - Hierarchy - Hierarchy as between national sources - Hierarchy emerging from the Constitution.
3.4 General Principles - Separation of powers.
4.4.3.1 Institutions - Head of State - Powers - Relations with legislative bodies.
COVID-19 / COVID-19, pandemic / Institutional referral / Referral by 30 deputies / Article 113.2.1 of the Constitution / Freedom of movement / Fundamental rights and freedoms, limitation / Legitimate aim / Proportionality / Government / Parliament.

MOLDOVA, REPUBLIC OF

MDA-2020-2-005 a) Moldova / b) Constitutional Court / c) Plenary / d) 23.06.2020 / e) 18 / f) On the constitutional review of Article 761.1 of the Contravention Code (non-compliance with measures for the prophylaxis, prevention and/or control of epidemic diseases, if this endangers public health) /
A relatively small difference between the minimum and maximum limits of a penalty does not allow for assessment by the courts of the proportionality of the penalty applied in relation to the offence and the circumstances of the case. This infringes the constitutional right to a fair trial.
3.14 General Principles - Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege.
5.1.4 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions.
5.3.13 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial.
5.3.39 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to property.
COVID-19 / Epidemic diseases, rules, non-compliance, penalties.

MONTENEGRO

MNE-2020-2-001 a) Montenegro / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 23.07.2020 / e) U-III no. 22/20 / f) /
A decision by the National Coordinating Body for Communicable Diseases that does not satisfy all formal requirements may still produce a legal effect to an indefinite number of persons. The publication of names and addresses of persons in self-isolation in relation to COVID-19 on the Government’s website, without the consent of the concerned persons, violates their right to respect for their... Read more
1.3.5.14 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Government acts.
2.1.1.4.4 Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - European Convention on Human Rights of 1950.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
5.1.4 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.32.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life - Protection of personal data.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19 / National Coordinating Body for Communicable Diseases / Epidemic, pandemic, Covid-19, public health, protection, self-isolation, publication, name, address / Health data, data processing, legal basis, consent / Covid-19, contact tracing application.

NORWAY

NOR-2020-1-006 a) Norway / b) Supreme Court / c) Division / d) 08.05.2020 / e) HR-2020-972-A / f) /
The right to be brought before a court upon an initial remand in custody is a basic due process guarantee and the Corona Regulations must be interpreted within the scope of Article 5.3 ECHR and Article 94.2 of the Constitution.
5.3.5.1.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Deprivation of liberty - Detention pending trial.
5.3.13 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial.
COVID-19 regulations, scope, limits.

ORGANISATION OF AMERICAN STATES

IAC-2020-2-001 a) Organisation of American States / b) Inter-American Court of Human Rights / c) / d) 27.07.2020 / e) / f) Vélez Loor v. Panama /
The decision to adopt provisional measures to ensure the health, life and integrity of migrants who are being held in two migrant reception centres in Panamá established a number of minimum requirements to ensure the human rights of migrants held in such facilities due to border closures in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The difficulties of the current context required synergy and... Read more
2.1.1.4.11 Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - American Convention on Human Rights of 1969.
3.18 General Principles - General interest.
5.1.1.3 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Foreigners.
5.1.3 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Positive obligation of the state.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
5.3.4 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to physical and psychological integrity.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19, pandemic, measures / Migrant, reception centres / Migrant rights / Right to health.

RUSSIA

RUS-2020-3-007 a) Russia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 25.12.2020 / e) 49-II / f) /
The imposition of restrictions on freedom of movement during the pandemic has a constitutionally significant purpose and was dictated by the objective need to respond promptly to the extraordinary (unprecedented) danger of the spread of the coronavirus (COVID-2019).
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
3.18 General Principles - General interest.
5.3.6 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of movement.
COVID-19, coronavirus, infection / Freedom of movement, restriction / public health, protection, pandemic.

SERBIA

SRB-2020-2-002 a) Serbia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 21.05.2020 / e) IUo-42/2020 / f) /
COVID-19 could be considered as a public danger that threatens the survival of the state or its citizens. The decision to declare a state of emergency because of the epidemic was in line with the Constitution.
4.18 Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
COVID-19 / State of emergency, declaration.

SRB-2020-3-003 a) Serbia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 17.09.2020 / e) IUo-45/2020 / f) /
The rights regarding legal certainty in criminal law, included in Article 34 of the Constitution are non-derogable rights.
4.18 Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.
5.1.4 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions.
5.3.6 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of movement.
5.3.14 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Ne bis in idem.
COVID-19, state of emergency, measures / Derogation, measures, fundamental rights, competence to prescribe.

SLOVAKIA

SVK-2020-2-001 a) Slovakia / b) Constitutional Court / c) Plenum / d) 13.05.2020 / e) PL. ÚS 13/2020 / f) /
The current Covid-19 pandemic and the necessity of protecting the life and health of the population justifies certain interferences with fundamental rights, namely in this case with the right to privacy and personal data protection. However, in adopting measures aimed at preventing further spread of the disease, the legislator must pass legislation which is clear, unambiguous and which provides... Read more
5.3.32 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life.
5.3.32.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life - Protection of personal data.
5.3.36.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Inviolability of communications - Telephonic communications.
COVID-19 / Pandemic, COVID-19 / Data, personal / Data, telecommunications.

SLOVENIA

SLO-2021-1-003 a) Slovenia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 27.08.2020 / e) U-I-83/20 / f) /
A legislative prohibition on movement the aim of which was to contain the spread of a contagious disease pursued a constitutionally admissible objective. That objective was the protection of human health and life. To secure those objectives was, moreover, a constitutional obligation laid upon state authorities.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.6 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of movement.
COVID-19 / SARS-COV-2 / COVID-19, epidemic, measures / COVID-19, pandemic, measures.

SLO-2021-1-004 a) Slovenia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 03.12.2020 / e) U-I-445/20 / f) /
Orders by which the Government extends the validity of a regulation that determined certain measures for fighting the COVID-19 epidemic are also regulations. They must therefore be published before they enter into force. Government orders that had not been published in the Official Gazette, could not therefore have entered into force, which in turn affected the validity of measures set out in a... Read more
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.4.2 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to education.
COVID-19 / SARS-COV-2 / COVID-19, epidemic, measures / COVID-19, pandemic, measures.

UKRAINE

UKR-2020-2-015 a) Ukraine / b) Constitutional Court / c) Grand Chamber / d) 28.08.2020 / e) 10-r/2020 / f) Constitutionality of certain provisions of the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers on the Establishment of quarantine to prevent the spread of acute respiratory disease COVID-19 caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Ukraine and the stages of mitigation of anti-epidemic measures, the provisions of Article 29.1 and 29.3 of the Law on the State Budget for 2020, paragraph 2.9 of Section II Final Provisions of the Law on Amendments to the Law on the State Budget for 2020) /
Several legislative provisions had been enacted with a view to containing the spread of COVID 19. Certain encroachments on human rights and freedoms may be permissible under a state of emergency or martial law, but they must be put into place in accordance with the law and the Constitution. Some of the provisions set limits on judge’s salaries during quarantine; this created uncertainty and ran... Read more
3.10 General Principles - Certainty of the law.
4.6.2 Institutions - Executive bodies - Powers.
4.7.4.1.6 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Organisation - Members - Status.
COVID-19 / Judge, remuneration, reduction, coronavirus / Independence, judiciary, encroachment.

UNITED KINGDOM

GBR-2020-3-003 a) United Kingdom / b) Supreme Court / c) / d) 15.01.2021 / e) / f) The Financial Conduct Authority v. Arch Insurance (UK) Ltd and others; Hiscox Action Group v. Arch Insurance (UK) Ltd and others; Argenta Syndicate Management Ltd v. The Financial Conduct Authority and others; Royal & Sun Alliance Insurance Plc v. The Financial Conduct Authority and others; MS Amlin Underwriting Ltd v. The Financial Conduct Authority and others; Hiscox Insurance Company Ltd v. The Financial Conduct Authority and others; QBE UK Ltd v. The Financial Conduct Authority and others and Arch Insurance (UK) Ltd v. The Financial Conduct Authority and others /
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ("COVID-19") and the restrictions imposed to respond to the resulting health emergency caused widespread business interruption in the UK. The present proceedings were brought by the UK Financial Conduct Authority (hereinafter, the "FCA"), one of the two UK financial services regulators, pursuant to an agreement made with leading insurance companies... Read more
2.1.3.1 Sources - Categories - Case-law - Domestic case-law.
3.25 General Principles - Market economy.
Insurance policies / COVID-19 / Test case.

B. Systematic Thesaurus
1.1.4.2Constitutional Justice - Constitutional jurisdiction - Relations with other institutions - Legislative bodies.BRA-2020-2-009
1.2.1.1Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a public body - Head of State.ARG-2020-1-001, FRA-2020-2-006
1.2.1.2Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a public body - Legislative bodies.FRA-2020-2-006, KOS-2020-2-002
1.2.2.5Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a private body or individual - Trade unions.BRA-2020-1-005
1.3.2.2Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Type of review - Abstract / concrete review.KOS-2020-2-002, CRO-2020-3-007
1.3.4.1Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Types of litigation - Litigation in respect of fundamental rights and freedoms.KOS-2020-2-002
1.3.4.3Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Types of litigation - Distribution of powers between central government and federal or regional entities.BRA-2020-2-014, BRA-2020-3-029
1.3.4.4Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Types of litigation - Powers of local authorities.BRA-2020-3-029
1.3.4.6Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Types of litigation - Litigation in respect of referendums and other instruments of direct democracy .BRA-2020-2-016
1.3.4.10Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Types of litigation - Litigation in respect of the constitutionality of enactments.KOS-2020-2-002
1.3.5.9Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Parliamentary rules.ARG-2020-1-001
1.3.5.10Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Rules issued by the executive.KOS-2020-1-001, CRO-2020-3-007
1.3.5.13Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Administrative acts.KOS-2020-2-002
1.3.5.14Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Government acts.MNE-2020-2-001
1.4.3Constitutional Justice - Procedure - Time-limits for instituting proceedings.AUT-2020-2-002
1.4.3.3Constitutional Justice - Procedure - Time-limits for instituting proceedings - Leave to appeal out of time.CZE-2021-1-002
1.4.4Constitutional Justice - Procedure - Exhaustion of remedies.GER-2020-3-029
1.4.6.1Constitutional Justice - Procedure - Grounds - Time-limits.AUT-2020-2-002
1.4.9.2Constitutional Justice - Procedure - Parties - Interest.AUT-2020-2-002
1.5.3Constitutional Justice - Decisions - Form.ARG-2020-1-001
1.5.4.7Constitutional Justice - Decisions - Types - Interim measures.BRA-2020-1-005, GER-2020-1-007, BRA-2020-2-009, BRA-2020-2-011, BRA-2020-3-020, GER-2021-1-009
1.6.8Constitutional Justice - Effects - Influence on everyday life.BRA-2020-2-012, BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-3-022, BRA-2020-3-026, BRA-2020-3-029
2.1.1.1.1Sources - Categories - Written rules - National rules - Constitution.KOS-2020-2-002
2.1.1.4.4Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - European Convention on Human Rights of 1950.BIH-2020-1-001, KOS-2020-1-001, MNE-2020-2-001, FRA-2020-3-013
2.1.1.4.6Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - European Social Charter of 1961.CRO-2020-3-009
2.1.1.4.11Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - American Convention on Human Rights of 1969.IAC-2020-2-001
2.1.1.4.19Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - International conventions regulating diplomatic and consular relations.BRA-2020-2-017
2.1.3.1Sources - Categories - Case-law - Domestic case-law.KOS-2020-2-002, GBR-2020-3-003
2.1.3.2.1Sources - Categories - Case-law - International case-law - European Court of Human Rights.KOS-2020-1-001
2.2.2.1Sources - Hierarchy - Hierarchy as between national sources - Hierarchy emerging from the Constitution.KOS-2020-2-002
3.3General Principles - Democracy.BRA-2020-1-007
3.4General Principles - Separation of powers.KOS-2020-1-001, KOS-2020-2-002
3.6.2General Principles - Structure of the State - Regional State.BRA-2020-2-012, BRA-2020-2-013, BRA-2020-2-014, BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-3-022, BRA-2020-3-026, BRA-2020-3-029
3.7General Principles - Relations between the State and bodies of a religious or ideological nature.BRA-2020-3-029
3.9General Principles - Rule of law.BIH-2020-1-001, KOS-2020-1-001, CRO-2020-3-007, CZE-2021-1-002
3.10General Principles - Certainty of the law.UKR-2020-2-015
3.12General Principles - Clarity and precision of legal provisions.BIH-2020-1-001, AUT-2020-2-002, HUN-2020-2-003, FRA-2021-1-006
3.13General Principles - Legality.AUT-2020-2-002, CRO-2020-3-009, CRO-2021-1-001, CRO-2021-1-002
3.14General Principles - Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege.MDA-2020-2-005
3.16General Principles - Proportionality.BIH-2020-1-001, KOS-2020-1-001, AUT-2020-2-003, CRO-2020-2-004, FRA-2020-2-006, MNE-2020-2-001, CRO-2020-3-007, CRO-2020-3-009, FRA-2020-3-012, RUS-2020-3-007, CRO-2021-1-001, CRO-2021-1-002, FRA-2021-1-002, SLO-2021-1-003, SLO-2021-1-004
3.17General Principles - Weighing of interests.BIH-2020-1-001, GER-2020-1-007, CRO-2020-3-007, CRO-2020-3-009, CRO-2021-1-001, CRO-2021-1-002, GER-2021-1-009
3.18General Principles - General interest.FRA-2020-2-007, IAC-2020-2-001, CRO-2020-3-007, CRO-2020-3-009, RUS-2020-3-007, CRO-2021-1-001, CRO-2021-1-002
3.19General Principles - Margin of appreciation.AUT-2020-2-003, FRA-2020-3-013
3.21General Principles - Equality.BRA-2020-3-022
3.22General Principles - Prohibition of arbitrariness.BIH-2020-1-001, CZE-2021-1-002
3.25General Principles - Market economy.BRA-2020-1-006, GBR-2020-3-003
4Institutions. - Institutions.BEN-2020-A-005
4.4.3.1Institutions - Head of State - Powers - Relations with legislative bodies.KOS-2020-2-002
4.4.3.4Institutions - Head of State - Powers - Promulgation of laws.BRA-2020-2-010, BRA-2020-3-025
4.4.3.5Institutions - Head of State - Powers - International relations.BRA-2020-2-017
4.4.6.1.1Institutions - Head of State - Status - Liability - Legal liability.BRA-2020-3-025
4.5.2Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers.ARG-2020-1-001, CRO-2020-3-007
4.5.2.1Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers - Competences with respect to international agreements.ARG-2020-1-001
4.5.2.2Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers - Powers of enquiry.ARG-2020-1-001
4.5.2.3Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers - Delegation to another legislative body.ARG-2020-1-001
4.5.4.1Institutions - Legislative bodies - Organisation - Rules of procedure.FRA-2021-1-006
4.5.6Institutions - Legislative bodies - Law-making procedure.ARG-2020-1-001
4.5.7Institutions - Legislative bodies - Relations with the executive bodies.KOS-2020-1-001
4.6.2Institutions - Executive bodies - Powers.UKR-2020-2-015, FRA-2020-3-012, CRO-2021-1-001, CRO-2021-1-002
4.6.3Institutions - Executive bodies - Application of laws.BRA-2020-2-015
4.6.3.2Institutions - Executive bodies - Application of laws - Delegated rule-making powers.AUT-2020-2-002, CRO-2020-3-007
4.6.6Institutions - Executive bodies - Relations with judicial bodies.FRA-2020-3-012
4.6.10.1.2Institutions - Executive bodies - Liability - Legal liability - Civil liability.BRA-2020-2-018
4.6.10.1.3Institutions - Executive bodies - Liability - Legal liability - Criminal liability.BRA-2020-2-018
4.6.10.2Institutions - Executive bodies - Liability - Political responsibility.BRA-2020-2-010
4.7.4.1.6Institutions - Judicial bodies - Organisation - Members - Status.UKR-2020-2-015
4.7.16.1Institutions - Judicial bodies - Liability - Liability of the State.BRA-2020-2-010
4.8.1Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Federal entities.BRA-2020-2-012, BRA-2020-2-013, BRA-2020-2-014, BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-3-022, BRA-2020-3-026, BRA-2020-3-027, BRA-2020-3-029
4.8.3Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Municipalities.BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-3-029
4.8.4.1Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Basic principles - Autonomy.BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-3-027, BRA-2020-3-029
4.8.7Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Budgetary and financial aspects.BRA-2020-2-015
4.8.7.2Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Budgetary and financial aspects - Arrangements for distributing the financial resources of the State.BRA-2020-2-013
4.9Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy.FRA-2020-2-007, CRO-2020-3-008
4.9.7.2Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Preliminary procedures - Registration of parties and candidates.BRA-2020-2-016
4.9.9.6Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Voting procedures - Casting of votes.CRO-2020-2-004
4.9.13Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Judicial control.FRA-2020-2-007
4.10.2Institutions - Public finances - Budget.BRA-2020-2-010, BRA-2020-2-015
4.10.7Institutions - Public finances - Taxation.BRA-2020-2-015
4.16Institutions - International relations.BRA-2020-2-017
4.18Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.BIH-2020-1-001, BRA-2020-1-005, KOS-2020-1-001, BRA-2020-2-013, BRA-2020-2-014, HUN-2020-2-003, SRB-2020-2-002, FRA-2020-3-012, FRA-2020-3-013, SRB-2020-3-003, FRA-2021-1-006
5.1.1Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights.CHI-2020-1-003
5.1.1.3Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Foreigners.IAC-2020-2-001
5.1.1.4.2Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Natural persons - Incapacitated.BRA-2020-2-010
5.1.1.4.3Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Natural persons - Detainees.CHI-2020-1-003, FRA-2021-1-001, FRA-2021-1-002
5.1.3Fundamental Rights - General questions - Positive obligation of the state.IAC-2020-2-001
5.1.4Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions.KOS-2020-1-001, FRA-2020-2-006, MDA-2020-2-005, MNE-2020-2-001, CRO-2020-3-007, FRA-2020-3-012, FRA-2020-3-013, SRB-2020-3-003, CRO-2021-1-001, CRO-2021-1-002
5.1.4.2Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions - General/special clause of limitation.BIH-2020-1-001
5.1.4.3Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions - Subsequent review of limitation.BIH-2020-1-001
5.1.5Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.BIH-2020-1-001, KOS-2020-1-001, AUT-2020-2-002, AUT-2020-2-003, FRA-2020-2-006, FRA-2020-2-007, MNE-2020-2-001, SRB-2020-2-002, CRO-2020-3-007, CRO-2020-3-008, CRO-2020-3-009, FRA-2020-3-012, FRA-2020-3-013, CRO-2021-1-001, CRO-2021-1-002, FRA-2021-1-001, FRA-2021-1-002, SLO-2021-1-003, SLO-2021-1-004
5.2Fundamental Rights - Equality.CHI-2020-1-003, AUT-2020-2-003
5.2.1.2Fundamental Rights - Equality - Scope of application - Employment.BRA-2020-1-005
5.2.1.4Fundamental Rights - Equality - Scope of application - Elections.FRA-2020-2-007
5.2.2.7Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Age.CHI-2020-1-003
5.3.1Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to dignity.BRA-2020-3-023, CRO-2020-3-009
5.3.2Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.BRA-2020-2-010, BRA-2020-2-012, BRA-2020-2-013, BRA-2020-2-014, BRA-2020-2-019, IAC-2020-2-001, BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-3-022, BRA-2020-3-023, BRA-2020-3-025, BRA-2020-3-026, BRA-2020-3-029, CRO-2020-3-007, GER-2020-3-029
5.3.4Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to physical and psychological integrity.IAC-2020-2-001, GER-2020-3-029
5.3.5Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty.CHI-2020-1-003
5.3.5.1.3Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Deprivation of liberty - Detention pending trial.NOR-2020-1-006, CRO-2020-2-002, FRA-2021-1-001, FRA-2021-1-002
5.3.6Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of movement.BIH-2020-1-001, KOS-2020-1-001, AUT-2020-2-002, FRA-2020-2-006, CRO-2020-3-007, RUS-2020-3-007, SRB-2020-3-003, SLO-2021-1-003
5.3.12Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Security of the person.BRA-2020-3-025
5.3.13Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial.NOR-2020-1-006, CRO-2020-2-002, MDA-2020-2-005
5.3.13.1.1Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Scope - Constitutional proceedings.CRC-2020-3-002
5.3.13.1.3Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Scope - Criminal proceedings.CRC-2020-3-002, FRA-2021-1-001
5.3.13.2Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Effective remedy.CRO-2020-3-007
5.3.13.3Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Access to courts.FRA-2021-1-002, GER-2021-1-006
5.3.13.6Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Right to a hearing.CRC-2020-3-002
5.3.13.7Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Right to participate in the administration of justice.CRC-2020-3-002, FRA-2020-3-013, FRA-2021-1-001
5.3.13.13Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Trial/decision within reasonable time.CRO-2020-2-002, CRC-2020-3-002
5.3.13.18Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Reasoning.CRO-2020-2-002
5.3.14Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Ne bis in idem.SRB-2020-3-003
5.3.15Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights of victims of crime.CHI-2020-1-003
5.3.19Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of opinion.CHI-2020-1-003
5.3.20Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of worship.CRO-2021-1-001
5.3.21Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of expression.FRA-2020-2-006, HUN-2020-2-003
5.3.24Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to information.BRA-2020-1-007, BRA-2020-2-019
5.3.25Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to administrative transparency.BRA-2020-1-007, BRA-2020-2-019
5.3.28Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of assembly.KOS-2020-1-001
5.3.32Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life.KOS-2020-1-001, SVK-2020-2-001, CRO-2020-3-009
5.3.32.1Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life - Protection of personal data.BRA-2020-2-011, FRA-2020-2-006, MNE-2020-2-001, SVK-2020-2-001, FRA-2020-3-012
5.3.33Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.KOS-2020-1-001, GER-2021-1-006
5.3.36.2Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Inviolability of communications - Telephonic communications.BRA-2020-2-011, SVK-2020-2-001
5.3.39Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to property.MDA-2020-2-005, CRO-2021-1-002
5.3.39.3Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to property - Other limitations.AUT-2020-2-003
5.3.41.1Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights - Right to vote.CRO-2020-2-004, CRO-2020-3-008
5.3.41.6Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights - Frequency and regularity of elections.FRA-2020-2-007, CRO-2020-3-008
5.3.44Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights of the child.BIH-2020-1-001
5.3.45Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Protection of minorities and persons belonging to minorities.BRA-2020-3-022
5.4.2Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to education.SLO-2021-1-004
5.4.3Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to work.BRA-2020-1-005, BRA-2020-1-006
5.4.6Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Commercial and industrial freedom.BRA-2020-3-027, CZE-2021-1-002, CRO-2021-1-002
5.4.11Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Freedom of trade unions.BRA-2020-1-005
5.4.17Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to just and decent working conditions.BRA-2020-1-005, BRA-2020-1-006
5.4.19Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.CHI-2020-1-003, AUT-2020-2-002, AUT-2020-2-003, BRA-2020-2-010, BRA-2020-2-012, BRA-2020-2-013, BRA-2020-2-014, BRA-2020-2-019, FRA-2020-2-006, IAC-2020-2-001, MNE-2020-2-001, BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-3-022, BRA-2020-3-026, BRA-2020-3-029, CRO-2020-3-007, FRA-2020-3-012, FRA-2020-3-013, CRO-2021-1-001, CRO-2021-1-002, FRA-2021-1-001

C. Alphabetical Index

, CRO-2021-1-001
Administration, efficiency BRA-2020-2-014, BRA-2020-2-009, BRA-2020-2-013, BRA-2020-2-019
Administration, flexibility BRA-2020-2-013
Administration, morality, principle BRA-2020-2-013
Agreement, international, applicability BRA-2020-2-013
Agreement, international, binding force BRA-2020-2-013
Ambassador BRA-2020-2-017
Appeal, financial, adequate BRA-2020-2-013
Appearance, videoconference FRA-2021-1-001
Article 113.2.1 of the Constitution KOS-2020-2-002
Bank, loan BRA-2020-3-027
Benefit, governmental BRA-2020-2-010
Budget Act BRA-2020-2-015
Budget Law BRA-2020-2-015
Budget, control, state BRA-2020-2-015, BRA-2020-2-010
Budget, law, amendment BRA-2020-2-015
Budget, supplementary BRA-2020-2-015
Budgetary balance, principle BRA-2020-2-010
Capital washing BRA-2020-2-013
Catering facilities, suspension of work CRO-2021-1-002
Children, special needs, mental and physical condition BIH-2020-1-001
Circumstance, exceptional BIH-2020-1-001, BIH-2021-1-002
Civil servant, authority, misuse BRA-2020-2-018
Civil servant, disciplinary procedure BRA-2020-2-018
Civil servant, duties under terms of service BRA-2020-2-018
Civil servant, measure, disciplinary BRA-2020-2-018
Civil servant, negligence, damage caused, personal liability BRA-2020-2-018
Civil servant, rights and obligations BRA-2020-2-018
Continuation of custody FRA-2021-1-002
Contract, legislative intervention BRA-2020-3-027
COVID 19 CRO-2020-2-002, CRO-2020-2-004, CRO-2021-1-001, CZE-2021-1-002, BRA-2020-3-020
COVID-19 ARG-2020-1-001, BIH-2020-1-001, KOS-2020-2-002, BRA-2020-3-026, BRA-2020-3-027, SLO-2021-1-004, BRA-2020-3-025, BRA-2020-3-029, SLO-2021-1-003, FRA-2021-1-002, FRA-2020-2-006, UKR-2020-2-015, BRA-2020-2-010, BRA-2020-3-023, FRA-2020-2-007, BRA-2020-2-013, GER-2020-1-007, BRA-2020-2-012, MDA-2020-2-005, BRA-2020-2-016, BRA-2020-2-019, BRA-2020-2-011, CRO-2021-1-002, BRA-2020-3-022, BRA-2020-2-017, BRA-2020-2-018, SVK-2020-2-001, SRB-2020-2-002, BRA-2020-2-014, BRA-2020-2-009, BRA-2020-2-015, GBR-2020-3-003, MNE-2020-2-001
COVID-19 pandemic CRC-2020-3-002
COVID-19 pandemic, entry to the European Union, temporary restriction GER-2021-1-006
COVID-19 pandemic, travel to the European Union, temporary restriction GER-2021-1-006
COVID-19 regulations, scope, limits NOR-2020-1-006
Covid-19, contact tracing application MNE-2020-2-001
COVID-19, coronavirus, infection RUS-2020-3-007
COVID-19, disease, infectious, epidemic, face mask CRO-2020-3-009
COVID-19, disease, infectious, epidemic, pandemic CRO-2020-3-007
COVID-19, epidemic, measures SLO-2021-1-004, SLO-2021-1-003
COVID-19, epidemic, pandemic AUT-2020-2-003, FRA-2021-1-006, FRA-2021-1-002, FRA-2021-1-001
COVID-19, epidemic, pandemic. AUT-2020-2-002
COVID-19, pandemic KOS-2020-2-002, FRA-2020-3-013, GER-2020-3-029, BIH-2021-1-002, BRA-2020-2-017, CHI-2020-1-003
COVID-19, pandemic, chains of infection, identification, health data FRA-2020-3-012
COVID-19, pandemic, measures SLO-2021-1-004, SLO-2021-1-003, GER-2021-1-009, IAC-2020-2-001
COVID-19, pandemic, night curfew GER-2021-1-009
COVID-19, Public health KOS-2020-1-001, BRA-2020-2-017
COVID-19, special legal order HUN-2020-2-003
COVID-19, state of emergency, measures SRB-2020-3-003
Credit BRA-2020-3-027
Criminal court, person involved in court proceedings, appearance in person FRA-2021-1-001
Criminal justice system, functioning GER-2020-3-029
Data protection, unnecessary personal data, information concerning health Disease, infectious BRA-2020-2-011
Data, access, public interest BRA-2020-2-019, BRA-2020-2-011
Data, correction, right BRA-2020-2-019
Data, personal SVK-2020-2-001
Data, personal, protection BRA-2020-2-011
Data, telecommunications SVK-2020-2-001
Data, use, purpose limitation, principle BRA-2020-2-011
Decentralisation of powers, principle BRA-2020-3-029, BRA-2020-3-020
Decentralisation, limits BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-3-029
Degrading, treatment, severity, minimum CRO-2020-3-009
Deposit Insurance Fund BRA-2020-2-013
Deposit, amount, socially oriented BRA-2020-2-013
Derogation, measures, fundamental rights, competence to prescribe SRB-2020-3-003
Detention order, extension, reason CRO-2020-2-002
Deviation of power BRA-2020-2-013
Diplomat BRA-2020-2-017
Diplomat, Accreditation BRA-2020-2-017
Diplomatic Relations, Establishment BRA-2020-2-017
Disability, persons, rights BRA-2020-2-010
Disabled person, benefit, right BRA-2020-2-010
Disabled person, social assistance BRA-2020-2-010
Disabled person, social assistance, entitlement BRA-2020-2-010
Disabled person, social assistance, entitlement, conditions BRA-2020-2-010
Disabled person, welfare benefit, urgent need BRA-2020-2-010
Disease, infectious BRA-2020-2-016, BRA-2020-3-022, BRA-2020-2-013, BRA-2020-2-012, BRA-2020-3-025, BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-2-014, BRA-2020-3-029, BRA-2020-2-019, BRA-2020-3-026, BRA-2020-2-010
Disease, infectious, measures CRO-2021-1-002
Disease, infectious, measures, CRO-2021-1-001
Disease, statutory measures, constitutional grounds, judicial control, constitutional control, legitimate aim, self-isolation CRO-2020-3-007
Dismissal, obligatory period BRA-2020-2-016
Dispute, competence, central government, local government BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-3-022, BRA-2020-2-012, BRA-2020-3-029, BRA-2020-3-026
Division of powers BRA-2020-3-026, BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-2-012
Economic and financial crisis BRA-2020-2-015
Economic and financial crisis, policy, measure BRA-2020-1-005
Economic and financial situation, extremely difficult BRA-2020-2-015
Economic policy, measure BRA-2020-2-015
Economic situation, adjustment BRA-2020-2-015
Economy, state intervention BRA-2020-1-005
Economy, transition period BRA-2020-2-015
Education program, government, financial assistance BRA-2020-2-013
Education, State, duty BRA-2020-2-013
Elderly person BRA-2020-2-010
Election to Parliament, law BRA-2020-2-016
Election, association BRA-2020-2-016
Election, candidacy, presentation by political party, requirement BRA-2020-2-016
Election, candidate list, holder, status BRA-2020-2-016
Election, candidate, procedure registration BRA-2020-2-016
Election, Electoral Code, Constitution BRA-2020-2-016
Election, electoral list, quota, sex BRA-2020-2-016
Election, fairness, equal suffrage FRA-2020-2-007
Election, local, early, suspension, special circumstances, COVID-19, infectious disease, epidemic CRO-2020-3-008
Election, municipality BRA-2020-2-016
Election, party, candidates, list, gender, balance BRA-2020-2-016
Election, residency period, requirement BRA-2020-2-016
Election, vote, citizen, COVID-19, diagnosis CRO-2020-2-004
Election, vote, outside polling station CRO-2020-2-004
Emergency legislation, approval BRA-2020-1-005
Emergency measure BRA-2020-2-015
Emergency, assistance BRA-2020-2-013, BRA-2020-2-014
Emergency, ongoing BRA-2020-2-014, BRA-2020-2-013
Emergency, state, rule of law BRA-2020-2-015
Employment, home office AUT-2020-2-002
Employment, preservation, pandemic BRA-2020-1-006
Enterprise, small and medium-sized BRA-2020-1-006
Entry ban, ban on operation AUT-2020-2-003
Epidemic diseases, rules, non-compliance, penalties MDA-2020-2-005
Epidemic, pandemic, Covid-19, public health, protection, self-isolation, publication, name, address MNE-2020-2-001
Equality before the law BRA-2020-3-022
Equality of rights and obligations BRA-2020-3-022
Equality, equality of citizens before the law, general principle BRA-2020-3-022
Equality, inequality, human rights of others, impact BRA-2020-3-022
Equality, prohibition of discrimination BRA-2020-3-022
Equality, violation BRA-2020-3-022
Evaluation, legally significant facts BRA-2020-2-013
Exceptional circumstances FRA-2021-1-006
Exceptions, constitutional review FRA-2021-1-006
Executive power, accountability BRA-2020-2-015
Executive power, Federal President, integrative task of the office BRA-2020-2-015
Executive regulations, statutory authority CZE-2021-1-002
Executive, power, competences, scope BRA-2020-3-025, BRA-2020-3-029, BRA-2020-3-026, BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-3-022, BRA-2020-2-012
Expediency, requirement CRO-2020-2-002
Expenditure, exceptional BRA-2020-2-015
Expenditure, not provided for by law BRA-2020-2-015
Expired legislation, temporal applicability, short, challenge, legal interest AUT-2020-2-002
Expulsion BRA-2020-2-017
Federation, legislature, powers, exceeding BRA-2020-3-027
Financial control BRA-2020-2-010
Financial mean, principle BRA-2020-2-010
Forest, protection BRA-2020-2-013
Freedom of movement KOS-2020-2-002
Freedom of movement of services BRA-2020-3-020
Freedom of movement, restriction RUS-2020-3-007
Freedom of movement, temporary restriction, access, second residence AUT-2020-2-002
Freedom to travel BRA-2020-3-020
Freedom, movement BRA-2020-3-020
Freedom, restriction BRA-2020-3-020
Fundamental right, equivalent protection BRA-2020-3-026
Fundamental right, protection BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-3-025, BRA-2020-3-029, BRA-2020-3-022, BRA-2020-2-012
Fundamental rights and freedoms, limitation KOS-2020-2-002
Funds, sickness BRA-2020-2-015
Government KOS-2020-2-002
Government act, legitimate purpose BRA-2020-2-015
Government purpose, legitimate BRA-2020-2-015
Government, authorisation BRA-2020-2-015
Government, emergency decree, exceptional circumstances, interpretation BRA-2020-2-015
Government, emergency order BRA-2020-2-015
Headquarters, statutory authority, measures, issue CRO-2020-3-007
Health care, public office BRA-2020-2-019, BRA-2020-2-014
Health care, public service BRA-2020-2-013
Health care, right BRA-2020-2-014, BRA-2020-2-013, BRA-2020-2-019
Health data, data processing, legal basis, consent MNE-2020-2-001
Health emergency FRA-2020-3-012
Health emergency, civil procedure, hearing, absence FRA-2020-3-013
Health protection, system BRA-2020-2-010, BRA-2020-2-019, BRA-2020-2-013, BRA-2020-2-014
Health situation, worsening BRA-2020-2-010, BRA-2020-2-014, BRA-2020-2-013, BRA-2020-2-019
Health system, direct assistance BRA-2020-2-013, BRA-2020-2-019, BRA-2020-2-014
Health, effective protection BRA-2020-3-022, BRA-2020-3-029, BRA-2020-2-010, BRA-2020-3-025
Health, protection, effective BRA-2020-3-026, BRA-2020-2-012, BRA-2020-3-020
Health, protection, program, Government BRA-2020-2-013
Health, protection, programme, governmental BRA-2020-2-014
Health, public health, public interest BRA-2020-2-010, BRA-2020-3-026, BRA-2020-3-025, BRA-2020-2-013, BRA-2020-2-012, BRA-2020-3-022, BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-2-014, BRA-2020-3-029, BRA-2020-2-019
Healthcare, human dignity, preservation, precondition CRO-2020-3-009
Hearing, postponement, infectious disease (COVID-19,) pandemic CRO-2020-2-002
Household, same, different AUT-2020-2-002
Independence, judiciary, encroachment UKR-2020-2-015
Indigenous people, rights BRA-2020-3-023
Indigenous peoples, protection, COVID-19 BRA-2020-3-023
Indigenous rights BRA-2020-3-023
Information, access, denial BRA-2020-2-019, BRA-2020-2-011, BRA-2020-1-007
Information, access, limit BRA-2020-2-011, BRA-2020-1-007
Information, access, reasonable BRA-2020-1-007, BRA-2020-2-019, BRA-2020-2-011
Information, accuracy BRA-2020-2-019
Information, disclosure BRA-2020-2-019, BRA-2020-1-007, BRA-2020-2-011
Information, disclosure by the federal government BRA-2020-2-019
Information, duty to provide BRA-2020-2-011, BRA-2020-1-007
Information, obligation to provide BRA-2020-2-019, BRA-2020-2-011
Information, reasonable access BRA-2020-1-007
Information, right BRA-2020-2-019, BRA-2020-2-011
Institutional referral KOS-2020-2-002
Insurance policies GBR-2020-3-003
International agreement, validity, evaluation BRA-2020-2-013
International agreements, priority BRA-2020-2-013
Judge, remuneration, reduction, coronavirus UKR-2020-2-015
Judicial review FRA-2021-1-002
Judicial Review of other State Powers BRA-2020-2-017
Judicial review, administrative decision BRA-2020-2-013
Jurisdiction, exclusive competence BRA-2020-2-013
Labour rights, restrictions, requirements BRA-2020-1-005
Law, constitutionality, formal CRO-2020-3-007
Law, drafting and editing BRA-2020-3-025
Law, entry into force BRA-2020-3-025
Law-making rule BRA-2020-3-025
Law-making, constitutional rule BRA-2020-3-025
Legal act, failure to observe, liability, administrative, criminal BRA-2020-2-018
Legal provisions, suspension GER-2020-1-007, GER-2021-1-009
Legislative competence, limits BRA-2020-3-027
Legislative power, limitation BRA-2020-3-027
Legitimate aim KOS-2020-2-002
Liability for negligence BRA-2020-2-018
Liability, civil servant BRA-2020-2-018
Liability, state, civil BRA-2020-2-018
Liability, state, pecuniary BRA-2020-2-018
Liability, State, qualified fault BRA-2020-2-018
Measure, arbitrary CZE-2021-1-002
Migrant rights IAC-2020-2-001
Migrant, reception centres IAC-2020-2-001
Municipality, competence BRA-2020-3-029
Municipality, jurisdiction BRA-2020-3-020
Municipality, territory BRA-2020-3-020
National Coordinating Body for Communicable Diseases MNE-2020-2-001
Pandemic, COVID-19 SVK-2020-2-001
Pardon, power to grant, acting President CHI-2020-1-003
Pardon, restriction CHI-2020-1-003
Parliament KOS-2020-2-002
Parliament, ability to function, protection BRA-2020-2-009
Parliament, act BRA-2020-2-009
Parliament, action, internal BRA-2020-2-009
Parliament, commission, functioning BRA-2020-2-009
Parliament, committee, competences BRA-2020-2-009
Parliament, member, incompatibility, other activity BRA-2020-2-016
Parliament, power, restriction BRA-2020-2-009
Parliament, Senate, regulation BRA-2020-2-009
Parliament, virtual sessions ARG-2020-1-001
Parliamentary business, continuity FRA-2021-1-006
Parliamentary democracy, principle BRA-2020-2-009
Parliamentary rule, legal force BRA-2020-2-009
Person, elderly BIH-2020-1-001
Personal data, collection FRA-2020-2-006
Personal privacy, right BRA-2020-2-011
Population, interest, life, human, protection CRO-2020-3-009
Power, division BRA-2020-3-029
President, Individual Law, Control BRA-2020-2-017
President, Power, Delegation BRA-2020-2-017
President, Powers BRA-2020-2-017
President, Powers, Delegation BRA-2020-2-017
Project, state importance BRA-2020-2-013
Proportionality KOS-2020-2-002
Protection of human health and life CRO-2021-1-002
Protection of the existent health system BIH-2020-1-001, BIH-2021-1-002
Protection, civil, headquarters, authority, executive CRO-2020-3-007
Provisional measure BRA-2020-2-011, BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-2-018, BRA-2020-2-009
Provisional measure, nature BRA-2020-2-009
Public health CRO-2020-3-007, CRO-2021-1-002, CRO-2021-1-001
Public health emergency FRA-2020-2-006, FRA-2020-2-007
public health, protection, pandemic RUS-2020-3-007
Public office, plurality, incompatibility BRA-2020-2-016
Public place, access, restriction, entry ban, exception, professional duties, necessary basic needs AUT-2020-2-002
Public place, outdoors, indoors AUT-2020-2-002
Public servant, integrity BRA-2020-2-018
Referral by 30 deputies KOS-2020-2-002
Regulation, emergency measure CZE-2021-1-002
Religion, ceremonies, limited number of attending persons CRO-2021-1-001
Religion, ceremonies, restriction due to infectious disease epidemic CRO-2021-1-001
Religion, separation of church and state BRA-2020-3-029
Responsibility, authority BRA-2020-2-010, BRA-2020-2-012, BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-3-026, BRA-2020-3-029, BRA-2020-3-022, BRA-2020-3-025, BRA-2020-2-019
Responsibility, constitutional BRA-2020-3-026, BRA-2020-2-012, BRA-2020-3-025, BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-2-019, BRA-2020-3-029, BRA-2020-2-010, BRA-2020-3-022
Right to be heard, exchange of written documentation FRA-2020-3-013
Right to be present at hearing CRC-2020-3-002
Right to health IAC-2020-2-001
Right to property, compensation for loss of earnings, economic support measures AUT-2020-2-003
Rights of prisoners FRA-2021-1-002
Road traffic, laws and regulations BRA-2020-3-020
Road traffic, offense BRA-2020-3-020
Salary, reduction, compensation BRA-2020-1-005
SARS-COV-2 SLO-2021-1-003, SLO-2021-1-004
Schengen Borders Code GER-2021-1-006
Self-government, local, right CRO-2020-3-008
Social assistance, entitlement, condition BRA-2020-2-010, BRA-2020-3-022
Social assistance, exclusion BRA-2020-3-022
Social assistance, payment, source BRA-2020-2-010
Social assistance, reduction BRA-2020-3-022
Social assistance, right, condition BRA-2020-3-022
Social benefits and assistance, amount BRA-2020-2-010, BRA-2020-3-022
Social protection, reduction BRA-2020-3-022
Social protection, right BRA-2020-3-022
Social protection, state BRA-2020-3-022
Social protection, systems BRA-2020-3-022
Social welfare BRA-2020-2-010
Sovereignty, equal, between federal states BRA-2020-2-014
State authorities, conflict BRA-2020-2-014
State authorities, distribution of power BRA-2020-2-014
State of emergency, declaration SRB-2020-2-002
State, duty to protect fundamental rights and freedoms BRA-2020-2-014
State, duty to protect life BRA-2020-2-014
State, duty to protection fundamental rights and freedoms BRA-2020-3-026
State, duty, protection CRO-2020-3-007
State, duty, protection against an infectious disease CRO-2021-1-001, CRO-2021-1-002
State, duty, protection of life and safety BRA-2020-3-020, BRA-2020-3-029, BRA-2020-2-012, BRA-2020-3-025, BRA-2020-3-022
State, duty, protection, disease CRO-2020-3-009
State, positive obligation CRO-2020-3-007
State, responsibility BRA-2020-2-015
State, social guarantee BRA-2020-2-015, BRA-2020-3-022
Telephones, cell BRA-2020-2-011
Territory, authority BRA-2020-3-020
Territory, entry, exit BRA-2020-3-020
Territory, self-government BRA-2020-3-020
Test case GBR-2020-3-003
Transparency, administrative BRA-2020-2-019
Transparency, principle BRA-2020-2-019
Transparency, public administration BRA-2020-2-019
Trial hearing, poor health, accused GER-2020-3-029
University, professional duties, access, library AUT-2020-2-002
Vaccination policies, competence distribution, Government, Parliament and Regions BRA-2020-3-029
Vaccination, infectious disease, obligatory BRA-2020-3-029
Vaccination, obligatory BRA-2020-3-029
Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, effectiveness BRA-2020-2-017

Ed. 03.08.2021 11:44:44